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Referencing: Referencing Styles

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Referencing Styles

Choosing the correct style for your purpose will be directed by your discipline, publisher or university.  Schools at your university will provide a style guide outlining the style they utilise and the required format. There can be slight variations in format despite being the same style, so it is important to check even if you are using referencing software.  Consistency is a key feature in correct referencing.  

 

A number of styles exist in referencing.  They usually fall into two categories:

  • Author-Date - which is displayed in text as:

Heart disease is Australia's biggest killer (Smith, 2010).... OR

Smith (2010) has shown heart disease is Australia's biggest killer.

  • Author-Number - which is displayed in text as:

Smith [1] has shown heart disease is Australia's biggest killer.

 

Some of the more popular referencing styles are:

  • APA American Psychological Association - (Author-Date model)
  • Harvard - (Author-Date model)
  • MLA - Modern Language Association (Author-Page model)
  • Vancouver - (Author-Number model) primarily used for medical and scientific articles.  AMA (American Medical Association) is one type of Vancouver style referencing.